In recent years, the treaty has become a point of contention between India and Pakistan. In fact, India has issued a notice to Pakistan demanding changes in the IWT because of Pakistan’s “interference” in implementing the treaty’s rules.
On the other hand, Pakistan has objected to the construction of the Kishanganga and Ratle hydroelectric power projects in Jammu and Kashmir by India.
What is the Indus Basin Treaty (IWT)?
Sindhu Water This agreement is a water sharing agreement signed in 1960 between Pakistan and India under the auspices of the World Bank. The agreement aims to resolve disputes over the use of the Indus River and its tributaries, which flow through China, India and Pakistan.
Indus Basin Agreement: Why did India issue a notice to Pakistan? #Sindh Water Treaty
The treaty regulates the use and distribution of the Indus River system, which consists of the Indus River and its five tributaries – the Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, Jhelum and Chenab.
There are three eastern rivers – Ravi, Beas and Sutlej – while three are western rivers – Chenab, Jhelum and Sindh Main.
Under this agreement, the water of the eastern rivers goes to India, while the water of the western rivers mainly goes to Pakistan.
How was the Indus Basin Agreement?
After a dispute arose between the two countries over irrigation water from the existing facilities, the Indus Basin Agreement was signed in Karachi on 19 September 1960 by the then Pakistani President – Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan, former Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the World Bank. was signed by. WAB Illif.
This agreement came into force on 1st April 1961.
What does IWT describe?
The treaty has a preamble, 12 articles and eight appendices which give India complete control over the waters of the eastern rivers – Ravi, Sutlej and Beas, while Pakistan has unrestricted use of the western rivers – Indus, Jhelum and Chenab.
India can build storage (through hydro plants) on western rivers as per agreement. The IWT also established a Permanent Indus Commission (PIC) consisting of two commissioners, one from India and one from Pakistan, to promote cooperation between the two countries and to deal with questions arising from the interpretation or implementation of the treaty. To resolve.
Once a year, the PIC meets alternately in India and Pakistan and whenever a Commissioner requests to meet. As part of its work, the PIC also inspects rivers and works to find out what is happening with various developments.
Why did India give notice to Pakistan for change in IWT?
India had earlier this month announced that it would terminate the 62-year-old Indus Water Treaty (IWT) with Pakistan, citing Pakistan’s non-cooperation in resolving disputes over the Kishan Ganga and Ratle hydroelectric power projects in Jammu and Kashmir. I want to edit.
Pakistan first objected to India’s construction of the Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project on the Jhelum River in 2006 and then to the Ratale Hydroelectric Project on the Chenab River.
Both India and Pakistan disagree on whether the technical details of the projects are in line with the agreement.
While Pakistan is well within its rights to raise these objections under the treaty, the problem is that Pakistan cheated on the protocol of the treaty and instead went to the Arbitral Tribunal at The Hague. This is directly contrary to the agreement, which states that the World Bank will appoint an ‘impartial expert’ to examine and resolve the dispute.
Why IWT Notice is beneficial for India?
The fresh intergovernmental negotiations on IWT that are going to take place due to India’s notice may work entirely in India’s favour.
Formal negotiations would allow India to amend the treaty to prevent Pakistan’s recent and past inconsistent and inconsistent violations, which are against the treaty’s mandate.
Why is IWT so important?
Historically, rivers have been used as weapons of war because they provide important strategic advantages to countries and armies.
Controlling rivers allows nations and military forces to disrupt enemy access to water and food, limit enemy movement, and win wars—the Indus flows through India, Pakistan, and China.
The IWT, therefore, is a particularly important agreement because it is often seen globally as a rare example of India and Pakistan agreeing to hold back China. This is especially so after India’s decline in trade, cultural exchange and most bilateral dialogue with Pakistan.
According to the World Bank, the agreement has been described as one of the most successful transitional water management agreements on the planet.
With that said, strengthening the IWT is crucial to ensure that water is used and distributed in a sustainable manner, and that violations do not occur.
The present Government of India is playing a key role on several aspects of IWT. In 2021, for example, a parliamentary standing committee in India said the IWT should also address the effects of climate change on water availability in the river basin and other challenges not covered by the treaty.
The IWT Treaty is vital to keeping Pakistan in control because the future of the Indus River System and billions of people, including you and me, depend on it.